The five-factor model of personality (FFM) is a set of five broad trait dimensions or domains, often referred to as the “Big Five”: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism (sometimes named by its polar opposite, Emotional Stability), and Openness to Experience (sometimes named Intellect). Highly extraverted individuals are assertive and sociable, rather than quiet and reserved. Agreeable individuals are cooperative and polite, rather than antagonistic and rude. Conscientious individuals are task-focused and orderly, rather than distractible and disorganized. Neurotic individuals are prone to experiencing negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, and irritation, rather than being emotionally resilient. Finally, highly open individuals have a broad rather than narrow range of interests, are sensitive rather than indifferent to art and beauty, and prefer novelty to routine. The Big Five/FFM was developed to represent as much of the variability in individuals’ personalities as possible, using only a small set of trait dimensions. Many personality psychologists agree that its five domains capture the most important, basic individual differences in personality traits and that many alternative trait models can be conceptualized in terms of the Big Five/FFM structure. The goal of this article is to reference, organize, and comment on a variety of classic and contemporary papers related to the Big Five/FFM. This article begins with papers that introduce the Big Five/FFM structure, approach it from different theoretical perspectives, and consider possible objections to it (General Overviews, Theoretical Perspectives, and Critiques). Next, it discusses papers providing evidence for the Big Five/FFM as a model of basic trait structure (Big Five/FFM Structure). Third, the article considers hierarchical trait models that propose even broader personality dimensions “above” the Big Five, or more-specific traits “beneath” the Big Five (Big Five/FFM in Hierarchical Context). Fourth, it references a series of handbook chapters that each consider an individual Big Five domain in depth (Individual Domains). Fifth, it references several widely used Big Five/FFM measures as well as papers examining the accuracy of Big Five self-reports and observer-reports (Measurement). Sixth, the article discusses the biological and social origins of the Big Five (Biological and Social Bases). Seventh, the article considers stability and change in the Big Five across the life span as well as the developmental mechanisms underlying stability and change (Development). Finally, this article cites evidence that the Big Five influences a variety of important behaviors and life outcomes, from political attitudes to psychopathology (Predicting Behaviors and Life Outcomes).
These papers introduce the Big Five/five-factor model of personality (FFM) structure. Digman 1990 and Goldberg 1993 focus on its historical development. McCrae and John 1992 considers its possible theoretical and practical applications. John, et al. 2008 reviews a variety of research, including studies connecting the Big Five with important behaviors and life outcomes. The Great Ideas in Personality website briefly reviews the Big Five/FFM and provides links to other relevant online resources.
Digman, John M. 1990. Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology 41.1: 417–440.
DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002221E-mail Citation »
This article summarizes the history of the Big Five/FFM structure, including its relation to earlier personality models. It also reviews research relating the Big Five to behavior.
Goldberg, Lewis R. 1993. The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist 48.1: 26–34.
DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.48.1.26E-mail Citation »
This article reviews the history of the Big Five/FFM structure, from Galton’s 1884 preliminary lexical work to the emergence of a consensus among personality psychologists more than a century later.
Great ideas in personality: Five-factor model.
E-mail Citation »
This web page briefly reviews the Big Five/FFM structure, summarizes its relations to other personality models, and provides links to relevant online resources.
John, Oliver P., Laura P. Naumann, and Christopher J. Soto. 2008. Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In Handbook of personality: Theory and research. 3d ed. Edited by Oliver P. John, Richard W. Robins, and Lawrence A. Pervin, 114–158. New York: Guilford.
E-mail Citation »
This chapter provides a broad overview of the Big Five/FFM structure. It summarizes the history of the model, reviews research on the lifespan development and predictive validity of the Big Five, and discusses a variety of conceptual and measurement issues.
McCrae, Robert R., and Oliver P. John. 1992. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality 60.2: 175–215.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.xE-mail Citation »
This article reviews the history of the Big Five/FFM structure, objections to it, conceptualizations of the five domains, and possible theoretical and practical applications.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.
Big Five Personality Essay
Personality. Everybody has one. It has own uniqueness, relatively stable and predictable. In facts, personality is one of our important assets that already shaped our experiences. In a study of personalities and character (Schultz, 2009) personality can be define as the unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of person's character that influence behavior in different situations. According to (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2011) the relatively consistent blend of emotions, temperament, thought and behavior that makes person unique. Such characteristics way of feeling, thinking, and acting which reflect both inborn and environment influences affect the way we adapt to the world. The number of personality has been vary between theories. These theories will help answered the question of human nature and pattern behavior. For instance, what is influence by personality as the time goes by whether traits can change from childhood until the end of our life.
Moreover, the purpose of the test that has been asking to done is to know what type of the personality not only me but people around me. Though, it can help recognize better who am I really are. In addition, I do understand people with whom am I interact, the advantage is for the future to get to know my partner, children personality. Furthermore, personality are aspects that other people can see and somewhat impression we make on others.
After done taking the test " McCrae and Costa's The Big Five Personality" five major dimensions of human personality referred as OCEAN model of personality which is Openness to experience/Intellect, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, the result show that there are differences in percentile of the five elements in the test.
Openness to experience/Intellect 24 percentile
Conscientiousness 17 percentile
Extraversion 70 percentile
Agreeableness 74 percentile
Neuroticism 32 percentile
Based on the percentile showed there are two highest marks earned. There are Extraversion 70 percentile, Agreeableness 74 percentile. The lowest marks obtained are Openness to experience/Intellect 24 percentile, Conscientiousness 17 percentile, Neuroticism 32 percentile.
We can infer based on the data obtained above that major of the elements give somewhat are truth results about my dominant personality traits. My opinion is in different situation may express different dominant personality. For instance, someone has quiet and calm traits he or she is not always express that kind of traits in every situation. Extraversion 70 percentile. Or extrovert can be interpret as a lively and confident person who enjoys...
Loading: Checking Spelling0%