• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Einstein Research Papers

  • Vol. 1: The Early Years, 1879–1902

    Volume 1: The Early Years, 1879-1902

    Short Title: Vol. 1: The Early Years, 1879–1902

  • Vol. 1: The Early Years, 1879–1902 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 1: The Early Years, 1879-1902 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 1: The Early Years, 1879–1902 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 2: Writings 1900-1909

    Volume 2: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1900-1909

    Short Title: Vol. 2: Writings 1900-1909

  • Vol. 2: Writings 1900-1909 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 2: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1900-1909 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 2: Writings 1900-1909 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 3: Writings 1909-1911

    Volume 3: The Swiss Years: Writings 1909-1911

    Short Title: Vol. 3: Writings 1909-1911

  • Vol. 3: Writings 1909-1911 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 3: The Swiss Years: Writings 1909-1911 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 3: Writings 1909-1911 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 4: Writings 1912-1914

    Volume 4: The Swiss Years: Writings 1912-1914

    Short Title: Vol. 4: Writings 1912-1914

  • Vol. 4: Writings 1912-1914 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 4: The Swiss Years: Writings 1912-1914 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 4: Writings 1912-1914 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 5: The Swiss Years / Letters 1902–1914

    Volume 5: The Swiss Years: Correspondence, 1902-1914

    Short Title: Vol. 5: The Swiss Years / Letters 1902–1914

  • Vol. 5: Letters 1902–1914 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 5: The Swiss Years: Correspondence, 1902-1914 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 5: Letters 1902–1914 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 6: The Berlin Years / Writings 1914-1917

    Volume 6: The Berlin Years: Writings, 1914-1917

    Short Title: Vol. 6: The Berlin Years / Writings 1914-1917

  • Vol. 6: Writings, 1914-1917 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 6: The Berlin Years: Writings, 1914-1917 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 6: Writings, 1914-1917 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 7: The Berlin Years / Writings 1918-1921

    Volume 7: The Berlin Years: Writings, 1918-1921

    Short Title: Vol. 7: The Berlin Years / Writings 1918-1921

  • Vol. 7: Writings, 1918-1921 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 7: The Berlin Years: Writings, 1918-1921 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 7: Writings, 1918-1921 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 8A: Letters 1914-1917

    Volume 8, Part A: The Berlin Years: Correspondence 1914-1917

    Short Title: Vol. 8A: Letters 1914-1917

  • Vol. 8B: Letters 1918

    Volume 8, Part B: The Berlin Years: Correspondence 1918

    Short Title: Vol. 8B: Letters 1918

  • Vol. 8: Correspondence, 1914-1918 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 8: The Berlin Years: Correspondence, 1914-1918 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 8: Correspondence, 1914-1918 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 9: Letters 1919–1920

    Volume 9: The Berlin Years: Correspondence January 1919-April 1920

    Short Title: Vol. 9: Letters 1919–1920

  • Vol. 9: Letters 1919–1920 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 9: The Berlin Years: Correspondence, January 1919-April 1920 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 9: Letters 1919–1920 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 10: Letters 1920 & Supplementary Letters 1909–1920

    Volume 10: The Berlin Years: Correspondence May-December 1920 / Supplementary Correspondence 1909-1920

    Short Title: Vol. 10: Letters 1920 & Supplementary Letters 1909–1920

  • Vol. 10: Letters 1920 & Supplementary Letters 1909–1920 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 10: The Berlin Years: Correspondence, May-December 1920, and Supplementary Correspondence, 1909-1920 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 10: Letters 1920 & Supplementary Letters 1909–1920 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 11: Cumulative Index

    Volume 11: Cumulative Index, Bibliography, List of Correspondence, Chronology, and Errata to Volumes 1-10

    Short Title: Vol. 11: Cumulative Index

  • Vol. 12: Letters 1921

    Volume 12: The Berlin Years: Correspondence January-December 1921

    Short Title: Vol. 12: Letters 1921

  • Vol. 12: Letters 1921 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 12: The Berlin Years: Correspondence, January-December 1921 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 12: Letters 1921 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 13: Writings & Letters 1922-1923

    Volume 13: The Berlin Years: Writings & Correspondence January 1922-March 1923

    Short Title: Vol. 13: Writings & Letters 1922-1923

  • Vol. 13: Writings & Letters 1922-1923 (English translation supplement)

    Volume 13: The Berlin Years: Writings & Correspondence January 1922-March 1923 (English translation supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 13: Writings & Letters 1922-1923 (English translation supplement)

  • Vol. 14: Writings & Correspondence, April 1923-May 1925

    Volume 14: The Berlin Years: Writings & Correspondence, April 1923-May 1925

    Short Title: Vol. 14: Writings & Correspondence, April 1923-May 1925

  • Vol. 14: Writings & Correspondence, April 1923-May 1925 (English Translation Supplement)

    Volume 14: The Berlin Years: Writings & Correspondence, April 1923-May 1925 (English Translation Supplement)

    Short Title: Vol. 14: Writings & Correspondence, April 1923-May 1925 (English Translation Supplement)

  • Albert Einstein (1879–1955) was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century, best known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity. He also made important contributions to statistical mechanics, especially his treatment of Brownian motion, his resolution of the paradox of specific heats, and his connection of fluctuations and dissipation. Despite his reservations about its interpretation, Einstein also made seminal contributions to quantum mechanics and, indirectly, quantum field theory, primarily through his theoretical studies of the photon.[1]

    Einstein's scientific publications are listed below in four tables: journal articles, book chapters, books and authorized translations. Each publication is indexed in the first column by its number in the Schilpp bibliography (Albert Einstein: Philosopher–Scientist, pp. 694–730) and by its article number in Einstein's Collected Papers. Complete references for these two bibliographies may be found below in the Bibliography section. The Schilpp numbers are used for cross-referencing in the Notes (the final column of each table), since they cover a greater time period of Einstein's life at present. The English translations of titles are generally taken from the published volumes of the Collected Papers. For some publications, however, such official translations are not available; unofficial translations are indicated with a § superscript. Although the tables are presented in chronological order by default, each table can be re-arranged in alphabetical order for any column by the reader clicking on the arrows at the top of that column. For illustration, to re-order a table by subject—e.g., to group together articles that pertain to "General relativity" or "Specific heats"—one need only click on the arrows in the "Classification and Notes" columns. To print out the re-sorted table, one may print it directly by using the web-browser Print option; the "Printable version" link at the left gives only the default sorting. Collaborative works by Einstein are highlighted in lavender, with the co-author(s) provided in the final column of the table.

    Einstein's many non-scientific works are not included here, to limit both the article's focus and size. The division of scientific and non-scientific works follows the Schilpp bibliography, which cites over 130 non-scientific works, often on humanitarian or political topics (pp. 730–746). Five volumes of Einstein's Collected Papers (volumes 1, 5, 8–10) are devoted to his correspondence, much of which is concerned with scientific questions. These letters are likewise not listed here, since they were not prepared for publication.

    Chronology and major themes[edit]

    The following station of Einstein's scientific discoveries provides a context for the publications listed below, and clarifies the major themes running through his work. The first four entries come from his Annus Mirabilis papers or miracle year papers.

    • In 1905, Einstein proposed the existence of the photon, an elementary particle associated with electromagnetic radiation (light), which was the foundation of quantum theory.[2] In 1909, Einstein showed that the photon carries momentum as well as energy and that electromagnetic radiation must have both particle-like and wave-like properties if Planck's law holds; this was a forerunner of the principle of wave–particle duality.[3] He would go on to receive the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work.
    • In 1905, Einstein developed a theory of Brownian motion in terms of fluctuations in the number of molecular collisions with an object,[4] providing further evidence that matter was composed of atoms. A few weeks earlier, he had derived the Einstein relation for diffusion, which was the first example of the general fluctuation-dissipation theorem and allowed a good estimate of the Avogadro constant.[5]
    • In 1905, Einstein developed the theory of special relativity, which reconciled the relativity of motion with the observed constancy of the speed of light (a paradox of 19th-century physics).[6] Special relativity is now a core principle of physics. Its counterintuitive predictions that moving clocks run more slowly, that moving objects are shortened in their direction of motion, and that the order of events is not absolute have been confirmed experimentally.
    • In 1905, Einstein developed his concept of Mass–energy equivalence. Its relation E=mc2 suggested that matter was a form of energy, which was later verified by the mass defect in atomic nuclei. The energy released in nuclear reactions—which is essential for nuclear power and nuclear weapons—can be estimated from such mass defects.[7]
    • In 1907 and again in 1911, Einstein developed the first quantum theory of specific heats by generalizing Planck's law.[8] His theory resolved a paradox of 19th-century physics that specific heats were often smaller than could be explained by any classical theory. His work was also the first to show that Planck'squantum mechanical lawE=hν was a fundamental law of physics, and not merely special to blackbody radiation.[9]
    • Between 1907 and 1915, Einstein developed the theory of general relativity, a classical field theory of gravitation that provides the cornerstone for modern astrophysics and cosmology.[10] General relativity is based on the surprising idea that time and space dynamically interact with matter and energy, and has been checked experimentally in many ways,[11] confirming its predictions of matter affecting the flow of time,[12]frame dragging,[13]black holes,[14] and gravitational waves.[15]
    • In 1917, Einstein published the idea for the Einstein–Brillouin–Keller method for finding the quantum mechanical version of a classical system.[16] The famous Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is a simple example, but the EBK method also gives accurate predictions for more complicated systems, such as the dinuclear cations H2+ and HeH2+.[17]
    • In 1918, Einstein developed a general theory of the process by which atoms emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation (his A and B coefficients), which is the basis of lasers (stimulated emission) and shaped the development of modern quantum electrodynamics, the best-validated physical theory at present.[18]
    • In 1924, together with Satyendra Nath Bose, Einstein developed the theory of Bose–Einstein statistics and Bose–Einstein condensates, which form the basis for superfluidity, superconductivity, and other phenomena.[19]
    • In 1935, together with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, Einstein put forward what is now known as the EPR paradox, and argued that the quantum-mechanical wave function must be an incomplete description of the physical world.[20]
    • In the final thirty years of his life, Einstein explored whether various classical unified field theories could account for both electromagnetism and gravitation and, possibly, quantum mechanics. However, his efforts were unsuccessful, since those theories did not match experimental observations.[21]

    Journal articles[edit]

    Most of Einstein's original scientific work appeared as journal articles. Articles on which Einstein collaborated with other scientists are highlighted in lavender, with the co-author(s) listed in the "Classification and notes" column.

    Index[notes 1]YearTitle and English translation[notes 2]Journal, volume, pages[notes 3]Classification and notes[notes 4]
    Schilpp 1; CP2, 11901Folgerungen aus den Kapillaritätserscheinungen
    Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 4, 513–523, linkIntermolecular forces.[22] The first of two papers in which Einstein proposed the (incorrect) theory that the interactions between all molecules are a universal function of distance, in analogy with the inverse-square force of gravity. Once parameterized, his theory makes reasonably accurate predictions for heavier hydrophobic molecules, but fails for lighter molecules.
    Schilpp 2; CP2, 21902Thermodynamische Theorie der Potentialdifferenz zwischen Metallen und vollständig dissoziierten Lösungen ihrer Salze, und eine elektrische Methode zur Erforschung der Molekularkräfte
    On the Thermodynamic Theory of the Difference in Potentials between Metals and Fully Dissociated Solutions of Their Salts and on an Electrical Method for Investigating Molecular Forces
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 8, 798–814, linkIntermolecular forces.[23] Einstein's second paper on a universal molecular energy function, this time applied to electrolytic solutions. No data are available for comparison. Einstein characterizes these two papers as "worthless" in 1907.[24]
    Schilpp 3; CP2, 31902Kinetische Theorie des Wärmegleichgewichtes und des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik
    Kinetic Theory of Thermal Equilibrium and of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 9, 417–433, linkStatistical mechanics.[25] Study of the equipartition theorem and the definitions of temperature and entropy.
    Schilpp 4; CP2, 41903Eine Theorie der Grundlagen der Thermodynamik
    A Theory of the Foundations of Thermodynamics
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 11, 170–187, linkStatistical mechanics.[26] The problem of irreversibility in thermodynamics.
    Schilpp 5; CP2, 51904Allgemeine molekulare Theorie der Wärme
    On the General Molecular Theory of Heat
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 14, 354–362, linkStatistical mechanics.[27] Fluctuations and new methods for determining Boltzmann's constant.
    CP2, 61905Review of Giuseppe Belluzzo: "Principi di termodinamica grafica"
    Review of Giuseppe Belluzzo: "Principles of Graphic Thermodynamics"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 78Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 71905Review of Albert Fliegner: "Über den Clausius'schen Entropiesatz"
    Review of Albert Fliegner: "On Clausius's Law of Entropy"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 79Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 81905Review of William McFadden Orr: "On Clausius' Theorem for Irreversible Cycles, and on the Increase of Entropy"Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 79Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 91905Review of George Hartley Bryan: "The Law of Degradation of Energy as the Fundamental Principle of Thermodynamics"Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 80Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 101905Review of Nikolay Nikolayevich Schiller: "Einige Bedenken betreffend die Theorie der Entropievermehrung durch Diffusion der Gase bei einander gleichen Anfangsspannungen der letzteren"
    Review of Nikolay Nikolayevich Schiller: "Some Concerns Regarding the Theory of Entropy Increase Due to the Diffusion of Gases Where the Initial Pressures of the Latter Are Equal"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 81Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 111905Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: "Über die spezifischen Wärmen des überhitzten Wasserdampfes"
    Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: "On the specific Heats of Superheated Water Vapor"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 82Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 121905Review of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff: "Einfluss der Änderung der spezifischen Wärme auf die Umwandlungsarbeit"
    Review of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff: "The Influence of the Change in Specific Heat on the Work of Conversion"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 82Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 131905Review of Arturo Giammarco: "Un caso di corrispondenza in termodinamica"
    Review of Arturo Giammarco: "A Case of Corresponding States in Thermodynamics"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 84Thermodynamics.
    Schilpp 7; CP2, 141905 March 17Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt
    On a Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 17, 132–148, linkPhotons.[28] Proposal of the photon as a quantum of energy, supported by many independent arguments.
    Schilpp 8; CP2, 161905Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen
    On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 17, 549–560, linkStatistical mechanics.[29] Seminal treatment of Brownian motion, a type of translational diffusion.
    CP2, 171905Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "Über die Schmelzwärme"
    Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "On the Heat of Fusion"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 135Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 181905Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "Folgerungen aus einer thermodynamischen Gleichung"
    Review of Karl Fredrik Slotte: "Conclusions Drawn from a Thermodynamic Equation"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 135Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 191905Review of Emile Mathias: "La constante a des diamètres rectilignes et les lois des états correspondents"
    Review of Emile Mathias: "The Constant a of Rectilinear Diameters and the Laws of Corresponding States"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 136Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 201905Review of Max Planck: "On Clausius' Theorem for Irreversible Cycles, and on the Increase of Entropy"Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 29 (1905) 137Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 211905Review of Edgar Buckingham: "On Certain Difficulties Which Are Encountered in the Study of Thermodynamics"Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 137Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 221905Review of Paul Langevin: "Sur une formule fondamentale de la théorie cinétique"
    Review of Paul Langevin: "On a Fundamental Formula of the Kinetic Theory"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 138Thermodynamics.
    Schilpp 9; CP2, 231905Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper
    On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 17, 891–921, link, WikilivresSpecial relativity.[30] This seminal paper gave birth to special relativity (SR). In particular, it stated the two postulates of SR (uniform motion is undetectable, and the speed of light is always constant) and its kinematics.
    Schilpp 10; CP2, 241905Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?
    Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy Content?
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 18, 639–641, linkSpecial relativity.[31] A follow-on from his last paper, this paper derived the conclusion that mass was equivalent to an energy and vice versa, leading to the famous equation E=mc2.
    CP2, 251905Review of Heinrich Birven: Grundzüge der mechanischen Wärmetheorie
    Review of Heinrich Birven: Fundamentals of the Mechanical Theory of Heat
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 175Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 261905Review of Auguste Ponsot: "Chaleur dans le déplacement de 1'équilibre d'un système capillaire"
    Review of Auguste Ponsot: "Heat in the Displacement of the Equilibrium of a Capillary System"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 175Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 271905Review of Karl Bohlin: "Sur le choc, considéré comme fondement des théories cinétiques de la pression des gaz et de la gravitation universelle"
    Review of Karl Bohlin: "On Impact Considered as the Basis of Kinetic Theories of Gas Pressure and of Universal Gravitation"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 176Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 281905Review of Georges Meslin: "Sur la constante de la loi de Mariotte et GayLussac"
    Review of Georges Meslin: "On the Constant in Mariotte and GayLussac's Law"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 177Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 291905Review of Albert Fliegner: "Das Ausströmen heissen Wassers aus Gefässmündungen"
    Review of Albert Fliegner: "The Efflux of Hot Water from Container Orifices
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 177Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 301905Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: Grundriss der Wärmetheorie. Mit zahlreichen Beispielen und Anwendungen
    Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: "An Outline of the Theory of Heat. With Numerous Examples and Applications. Part 1
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 178Thermodynamics.
    CP2, 311905Review of Albert Fliegner: "Über den Wärmewert chemischer Vorgänge"
    Review of Albert Fliegner: "On the Thermal Value of Chemical Processes"
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 29, 179Thermodynamics.
    Schilpp 11; CP2, 331906Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen
    A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 19, 289–306, linkStatistical mechanics.[32] Hydrodynamic determination of molecular volumes.
    Schilpp 12; CP2, 321906Zur Theorie der Brownschen Bewegung
    On the Theory of Brownian Motion
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 19, 371–381, linkStatistical mechanics.[33] Rotational Brownian motion, an example of rotational diffusion.
    Schilpp 13; CP2, 341906Theorie der Lichterzeugung und Lichtabsorption
    On the Theory of Light Production and Light Absorption
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 20, 199–206, linkPhotons.[34] Einstein reconciles his and Planck's independent derivations of the blackbody formula E=hν. Planck's derivation of this formula ascribed it to a restriction on the energy changes possible when radiation is produced or absorbed by matter, which implied no restriction on the energies of either matter or radiation. Einstein's 1905 derivation ascribed it to a restriction on the energy of radiation alone, but in this paper, he proposes the modern idea that the energies of both matter and radiation are quantized, which led to his work on quantum specific heats, such as reference #16.
    Schilpp 14; CP2, 351906Prinzip von der Erhaltung der Schwerpunktsbewegung und die Trägheit der Energie
    The Principle of Conservation of Motion of the Center of Gravity and the Inertia of Energy
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 20, 627–633, linkSpecial relativity.[35] First statement that the conservation of mass is a special case of the conservation of energy.
    Schilpp 15; CP2, 361906Eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Verhältnisses der transversalen und longitudinalen Masse des Elektrons
    On a Method for the Determination of the Ratio of the Transverse and the Longitudinal Mass of the Electron
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 21, 583–586, linkSpecial relativity.[36] A French translation appeared in the journal L'Éclairage électrique, volume 49, pages 493–494.
    CP2, 371906Review of Max Planck: Vorlesungen über die Theorie der Wärmestrahlung
    Review of Max Planck: Lectures on the Theory of Thermal Radiation
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 30, 211Statistical mechanics.
    Schilpp 16; CP2, 381907Plancksche Theorie der Strahlung und die Theorie der Spezifischen Wärme
    Planck's Theory of Radiation and the Theory of Specific Heat
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 22, 180–190, 800 link and correctionSpecific heats.[37] Seminal work applying Planck's law to the oscillations of atoms and molecules in solids. Resolved the 19th-century paradox of the equipartition theorem in classical physics, and introduced the Einstein model of solids, which led to the current Debye model. Showed that the quantum mechanical law E=hν was a general law of physics, and not merely special to blackbody radiation.
    Schilpp 17; CP2, 391907Gültigkeit des Satzes vom thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta
    On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 22, 569–572, linkStatistical mechanics.[38] Applies his theory of fluctuations to determine Boltzmann's constant from the voltage fluctuations in a capacitor. Resulted in a novel low-noise technique for amplifying voltages, as described in reference #25.
    Schilpp 18; CP2, 411907Möglichkeit einer neuen Prüfung des Relativitätsprinzips
    On the Possibility of a New Test of the Relativity Principle
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 23, 197–198, linkSpecial relativity.[39] Einstein's discovery of the transverse Doppler effect, in which the perceived frequency is shifted even when the line between the wave source and receiver and the source's velocity are perpendicular.
    Schilpp 191907Bemerkung zur Notiz des Herrn P. Ehrenfest: Translation deformierbarer Elektronen und der Flächensatz
    Comments on the Note of Mr. Paul Ehrenfest: The Translatory Motion of Deformable Electrons and the Area Law
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 23, 206–208, linkSpecial relativity.[40] Discusses the difficulty of applying Lorentz transformations to rigid bodies.
    Schilpp 20; CP2, 451907Die vom Relativätsprinzip geforderte Trägheit der Energie
    On the Inertia of Energy Required by the Relativity Principle
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 23, 371–384, linkSpecial relativity.[41] First statement that the total energy of a particle in rest equals E=mc2. Derives the transformation of energy and momentum under the influence of external forces (relativistic dynamics). Notes again the difficulty of applying Lorentz transformations to rigid bodies (see reference #19). Finally, speculates that Maxwell's equations will prove to be the limiting case for large numbers of light-quanta, just as thermodynamics is a limiting case of statistical mechanics.
    CP2, 461907Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: Grundriss der Wärmetheorie. Mit zahlreichen Beispielen und Anwendungen
    Review of Jakob Johann Weyrauch: An Outline of the Theory of Heat. With Numerous Examples and Applications. Part 2.
    Beiblätter zu den Annalen der Physik, 31, 251Thermodynamics.
    Schilpp 21; CP2, 471907Relativitätsprinzip und die aus demselben gezogenen Folgerungen
    On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It
    Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität, 4, 411–462, linkSpecial and general relativity.[42] A correction appeared in volume 5, pp. 98–99, Berichtigungen. First appearance (page 443) of the equation E=mc2. This paper also marks the beginning of Einstein's long development of general relativity; here he derives the equivalence principle, gravitational redshift, and the gravitational bending of light. Einstein returns to these topics in 1911.
    Schilpp 22; CP2, 401907Theoretische Bemerkungen über die Brownsche Bewegung
    Theoretical Remarks on Brownian Motion
    Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie und angewandte physikalische Chemie, 13, 41–42Statistical mechanics.[43] Brief note on the technical meaning of "average velocity".
    Schilpp 23; CP2, 511908Elektromagnetische Grundgleichungen für bewegte Körper
    On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 26, 532–540, linkSpecial relativity.[44] Co-authored with J. Laub. A correction appeared in volume 27, p.232, Berichtigungen. See also publication #27.
    Schilpp 24; CP2, 521908Die im elektromagnetischen Felde auf ruhende Körper ausgeübten ponderomotorischen Kräfte
    On the Ponderomotive Forces Exerted on Bodies at Rest in the Electromagnetic Field
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 26, 541–550, linkSpecial relativity.[45] Co-authored with J. Laub.
    Schilpp 25; CP2, 481908Neue elektrostatische Methode zur Messung kleiner Elektrizitätsmengen
    A New Electrostatic Method for the Measurement of Small Quantities of Electricity
    Physikalische Zeitschrift, 9, 216–217Electromagnetism.[46] Novel experimental method for measuring tiny amounts of charge, by first charging a variable capacitor at low capacitance, then changing it to high capacitance and discharging it to another capacitor. An apparatus for this amplification was constructed by two brothers, Johann Conrad Habicht and Franz Paul Habicht, in collaboration with Einstein and published in Physikalische Zeitschrift, 11, 532 (1910).
    Schilpp 26; CP2, 501908Elementare Theorie der Brownschen Bewegung
    Elementary Theory of Brownian Motion
    Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie, 14, 235–239Statistical mechanics.[47] Semi-popular review.
    Schilpp 27; CP2, 541909Bemerkungen zu unserer Arbeit: Elektromagnetische Grundgleichungen für bewegte Körper
    Remarks on Our Paper: On the Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations for Moving Bodies
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 28, 445–447, linkSpecial relativity.[44] Co-authored with J. Laub.
    Schilpp 28; CP2, 551909Bemerkung zur Arbeit von Mirimanoff: Die Grundgleichungen...
    Comment on the Paper of D. Mirimanoff: On the Fundamental Equations...
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 28, 885–888, linkSpecial relativity.[48] Notes similarity to Hermann Minkowski's work.
    Schilpp 29; CP2, 561909Zum gegenwärtigen Stande des Strahlungsproblems
    On the Present Status of the Radiation Problem
    Physikalische Zeitschrift, 10, 185–193Photons.[49] Review article on electromagnetic radiation, and an important forerunner of publication #30.
    Schilpp 29b; CP2, 571909No titlePhysikalische Zeitschrift, 10, 323–324Photons.[50] Walther Ritz's joint communique with Einstein (co-author) on their differing viewpoints of the advanced and retarded solutions of Maxwell's equations. Einstein argues that the physical restriction to retarded solutions is not a law, but probabilistic; Ritz states that the same restriction is the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
    Schilpp 30; CP2, 601909Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung
    On the Development of Our Views Concerning the Nature and Constitution of Radiation
    Physikalische Zeitschrift, 10, 817–825Photons.[51] Pivotal address before the 81st assembly of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher, held in Salzburg, where Einstein showed that photons must carry momentum and should be treated as particles. Notes that electromagnetic radiation must have a dual nature, at once both wave-like and particulate. Also published in the journal Deutsche physikalische Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen, 11, pp. 482–500. An English translation is available at the English Wikisource.
    Schilpp 31; CP3, 71910Über einen Satz der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und seine Anwendung in der Strahlungstheorie
    On a Theorem of the Probability Calculus and Its Application in the Theory of Radiation
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 33, 1096–1104, linkPhotons.[52] Co-authored with L. Hopf. See also publication #79.
    Schilpp 32; CP3, 81910Statistische Untersuchung der Bewegung eines Resonators in einem Strahlungsfeld
    Statistical Investigation of a Resonator's Motion in a Radiation Field
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 33, 1105–1115, linkPhotons.[53] Co-authored with L. Hopf.
    Schilpp 33; CP3, 91910Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes
    The Theory of the Opalescence of Homogeneous Fluids and Liquid Mixtures near the Critical State
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 33, 1275–1298, linkStatistical mechanics.[54] Seminal paper on critical opalescence.
    Schilpp 34; CP3, 21910Principe de relativité et ses conséquences dans la physique moderne
    The Principle of Relativity and Its Consequences in Modern Physics
    Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4), 29, 5–28, 125–244Special relativity.[55] Translation by E. Guillaume, but does not correspond to reference #21.
    Schilpp 35; CP3, 51910Théorie des quantités lumineuses et la question de la localisation de l'énergie électromagnetique
    On the Theory of Light Quanta and the Question of the Localization of Electromagnetic Energy
    Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4), 29, 525–528Photons.
    Schilpp 36; CP3, 61910Forces pondéromotrices qui agissent sur les conducteurs ferromagnétiques disposés dans un champs magnétique et parcourus par un courant
    On the Ponderomotive Forces Acting on Ferromagnetic Conductors Carrying a Current in a Magnetic Field
    Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4), 30, 323–324Electromagnetism.[56]
    Schilpp 37; CP3, 121911Bemerkung zu dem Gesetz von Eötvös Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 34, 165–169, linkIntermolecular forces and fluid mechanics.[57]
    Schilpp 38; CP3, 131911Beziehung zwischen dem elastischen Verhalten und der Spezifischen Wärme mit einatomigem Molekül
    A Relationship between Elastic Behavior and Specific Heat in Solids with a Monatomic Molecule
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 34, 170–174, linkSpecific heats.[58] Einstein tries to connect a characteristic frequency in his 1907 theory of specific heats to the elastic properties of the solid. See also Bemerkung zu meiner Arbeit: 'Eine Beziehung zwischen dem elastischen Verhalten ...'", p. 590.
    Schilpp 39; CP3, 101911Bemerkungen zu den P. Hertzschen Arbeiten: Mechanische Grundlagen der Thermodynamik
    Comments on P. Hertz's Papers: On the Mechanical Foundations of Thermodynamics
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 34, 175–176, linkStatistical mechanics.[59]
    Schilpp 40; CP3, 141911Berichtigung zu meiner Arbeit: Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen
    Correction to My Paper: A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 34, 591–592, linkStatistical mechanics.[60] Correction to publication #11 that produces an excellent estimate of the Avogadro constant.[61]
    Schilpp 41; CP3, 211911Elementare Betrachtungen über die thermische Molekularbewegung in festen Körpern
    Elementary Observations on Thermal Molecular Motion in Solids
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 35, 679–694, linkSpecific heats.[62] Recognizing that his 1907 model of specific heats is incorrect at very low temperatures, Einstein tries to improve it. The correct answer came a year later with the Debye model.
    Schilpp 42; CP3, 231911Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes
    On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 35, 898–908, linkGeneral relativity.[63] In this paper, Einstein resumes his development of general relativity, last discussed in 1907. Here, Einstein realizes that a new theory is needed to replace both special relativity and Newton's theory of gravitation. He also realizes that special relativity and the equivalence principle hold locally, not globally.
    Schilpp 43; CP3, 171911Relativitätstheorie Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zürich, Vierteljahresschrift, 56, 1–14Special and (possibly) general relativity.[64] An address given at the conference of the Zurich Society of Scientists.
    Schilpp 44; CP3, 221911Zum Ehrenfestschen Paradoxon Physikalische Zeitschrift, 12, 509–510Special relativity.[65] Clears up confusion about the Lorentz contraction.
    Schilpp 45; CP4, 2 and 51912Thermodynamische Begründung des photochemischen Äquivalentgesetzes
    Thermodynamic Proof of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 37, 832–838, linkStatistical mechanics.[66] See also volume 38, pp. 881–884, Nachtrag zu meiner Arbeit: 'Thermodynamische Begründung des photochemischen Äquivalentgesetzes'
    Schilpp 46; CP4, 31912Lichtgeschwindigkeit und Statik des Gravitationsfeldes
    The Speed of Light and the Statics of the Gravitational Field
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 38, 355–369, linkGeneral relativity.[67] First of two papers (see next entry for second) in the continuing development of general relativity (see reference #42). These two papers are the last in which Einstein allows time to be warped while keeping space flat (uncurved). In these papers, he realizes that the Lorentz transformations of special relativity must be generalized and that the new theory of gravitation must be non-linear, since gravitational energy can itself gravitate.[68]
    Schilpp 47; CP4, 41912Theorie des statischen Gravitationsfeldes
    On the Theory of the Static Gravitational Field
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 38, 443–458, linkGeneral relativity.[69] Second of two papers (see previous entry for first) in the continuing development of general relativity.
    Schilpp 48; CP4, 61912Antwort auf eine Bemerkung von J. Stark: Anwendung des Planckschen Elementargesetzes
    Response to a Comment by J. Stark: 'On an Application of Planck's Fundamental Law...
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 38, 888, linkPhotons.[70]
    Schilpp 49; CP4, 81912Relativität und Gravitation: Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham
    Relativity and Gravitation. Reply to a Comment by M. Abraham
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 38, 1059–1064, linkGeneral relativity.[71]
    Schilpp 50; CP4, 91912Bemerkung zu Abraham's vorangehender Auseinandersetzung: Nochmals Relativität und Gravitation
    Comment on Abraham's Preceding Discussion 'Once Again, Relativity and Gravitation
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 39, 704, linkGeneral relativity.[72]
    Schilpp 52; CP4, 71912Gibt es eine Gravitationswirkung die der elektromagnetischen Induktionswirkung analog ist?
    Is There a Gravitational Effect Which Is Analogous to Electrodynamic Induction?
    Vierteljahrschrift für gerichtliche Medizin (ser. 3), 44, 37–40General relativity.[73]
    Schilpp 53; CP4, 131913Entwurf einer verallgemeinerten Relativitätstheorie und eine Theorie der Gravitation. I. Physikalischer Teil von A. Einstein II. Mathematischer Teil von M. Grossmann
    Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation. I. Physical Part by A. Einstein II. Mathematical Part by M. Grossmann
    Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik, 62, 225–244, 245–261General relativity.[74] A breakthrough paper, written in collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, in which the single Newtonian scalargravitational field is replaced by ten fields, which are the components of a symmetric, four-dimensional metric tensor. However, the correct equations describing these fields are not identified. Reviewed critically in reference #68. See also references #21, 42, 46 and 47.
    Schilpp 54; CP4, 111913Einige Argumente für die Annahme einer molekular Agitation beim absoluten Nullpunkt
    Some Arguments for the Assumption of Molecular Agitation at Absolute Zero
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 40, 551–560, linkSpecific heats.[75] Co-authored with O. Stern. Einstein and Stern attempt to explain the specific heats of diatomic gases, such as molecular hydrogen, H2. Although qualitatively correct, they are quantitatively inaccurate.[76]
    Schilpp 55; CP4, 121913Déduction thermodynamique de la loi de l'équivalence photochimique
    Thermodynamic Deduction of the Law of Photochemical Equivalence
    Journal de physique (ser. 5), 3, 277–282Statistical mechanics.[77] Not a translation of reference #45, but rather an address before the Société Française de Physique, held on March 27, 1913.
    Schilpp 56; CP4, 161913Physikalische Grundlagen einer Gravitationstheorie
    Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation
    Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zürich, Vierteljahrsschrift, 58, 284–290General relativity.[78] Address before the Swiss Society of Scientists on September 9, 1913. A résumé is printed in the Schweizerische naturforschende Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen, 1913 (part 2), pp. 137–138.
    Schilpp 57; CP4, 231913Max Planck als Forscher Naturwissenschaften, 1, 1077–1079History of physics.[79]
    Schilpp 58; CP4, 171913Zum gegenwärtigen Stande des Gravitationsproblems
    On the Present State of the Problem of Gravitation
    Physikalische Zeitschrift, 14, 1249–1266General relativity.[80] Address on September 21, 1913 to the 85th Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher in Vienna. The discussion following Einstein's address is included in this citation. This review was also published in the Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte, Verhandlungen, 1914, pp. 3–24. A referat was also published in the journal Himmel und Erde, 26, pp. 90–93.
    Schilpp 59; CP4, 281914Nordströmsche Gravitationstheorie vom Standpunkt des absoluten Differentialkalküls
    Nordstöm's Theory of Gravitation from the Point of View of the Absolute Differential Calculus
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 44, 321–328, linkGeneral relativity.[81] Co-authored with A. D. Fokker. Shows that the competing field theory of Gunnar Nordström could be recast as a special case of the Einstein-Grossmann equations (see reference #53).
    Schilpp 601914Bases physiques d'une théorie de la gravitation
    Physical Foundations of a Theory of Gravitation§
    Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles (ser. 4), 37, 5–12General relativity.[78] Translated by E. Guillaume.
    Schilpp 611914Bemerkung zu P. Harzers Abhandlung: Die Mitführung des Lichtes in Glas und die Aberration
    Observation on P. Harzer's Article: Dragging of Light in Glass and Aberration§
    Astronomische Nachrichten, 199, 8–10, linkElectromagnetism and special relativity.[82]
    Schilpp 621914Antwort auf eine Replik P. Harzers
    Answer to P. Harzer's Reply§
    Astronomische Nachrichten, 199, 47–48, linkElectromagnetism and special relativity.[82]
    Schilpp 631914Zum gegenwärtigen Stande des Problems der spezifischen Wärme
    On the Present Status of the Problem of Specific Heats§
    Deutsche Bunsengesellschaft, Abhandlungen, 7, 330–364Specific heats. German edition of reference #51; pages 353–364 include the discussion following Einstein's address.
    Schilpp 64; CP6, 51914Beiträge zur Quantentheorie
    Contributions to Quantum Theory§
    Deutsche physikalische Gesellschaft, Berichte, 1914, 820–828Quantum mechanics.[83] Reprinted in volume 16 of the Verhandlungen of the same society.
    Schilpp 65; CP4, 271914Zur Theorie der Gravitation
    On the Theory of Gravitation
    Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zürich, Vierteljahrsschrift, 59, 4–6General relativity.[84]
    Schilpp 661914Review of H. A. Lorentz: Das Relativitätsprinzip
    Review of H. A. Lorentz: The Principle of Relativity§
    Naturwissenschaften, 2, 1018Special and (possibly) general relativity.[85]
    Schilpp 67; CP4, 241914Nachträgliche Antwort auf eine Frage von Reissner
    Supplementary Response to a Question by Mr. Reißner
    Physikalische Zeitschrift, 15, 108–110General relativity.[86] Concerns the mass of a gravitational field itself.
    Schilpp 68; CP4, 251914Principielles zur verallgemeinerten Relativitätstheorie und Gravitationstheorie
    On the Foundations of the Generalized Theory of Relativity and the Theory of Gravitation
    Physikalische Zeitschrift, 15, 176–180General relativity.[87] Reply to Gustav Mie on the relationship between reference #53 and Hermann Minkowski's work.
    Schilpp 69; CP6, 31914Antrittsrede Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1914 (pt. 2), 739–742General relativity.[88]
    Schilpp 70; CP6, 91914Formale Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
    Formal Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity§
    Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, 1914 (part 2), 1030–1085General relativity.[89] An important paper in the development of general relativity. Einstein still has not derived correct field equations, but he derives the geodesic motion of point particles, relates gravitational fields to rotation, and re-derives his 1907 results about the bending of light and gravitational redshift using the new metric tensor theory.
    Schilpp 71; CP4, 311914Zum Relativitätsproblem
    On the Relativity Problem
    Scientia (Bologna), 15, 337–348 linkSpecial and (possibly) general relativity.[90]
    Schilpp 721914Physikalische Grundlagen und leitende Gedanken für eine Gravitationstheorie
    Physical Foundations and Suggestive Thoughts for a Gravitational Theory§
    Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 96 (pt. 2), 146General relativity. Listed only by title; same lecture as publication #56.
    Schilpp 731914Gravitationstheorie Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 96 (pt. 2), 136–137General relativity.[78] For full text, see reference #56.
    Schilpp 74; CP6, 11914 April 26Relativitätsprinzip
    On the Principle of Relativity
    Vossische Zeitung, 33–34Special and (possibly) general relativity.[91]
    Schilpp 75; CP6, 21914Kovarianzeigenschaften der Feldgleichungen der auf die verallgemeinerte Relativitätstheorie gegründeten Gravitationstheorie
    Covariance Properties of the Field Equations of the Theory of Gravitation Based on the Generalized Theory of Relativity
    Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik, 63, 215–225General relativity.[92] Co-authored with M. Grossmann.
    Schilpp 781915Proefondervindelijk bewijs voor het bestan der moleculaire stroomen von Ampère
    Experimental Proof of the Existence of Ampère's Molecular Currents
    Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Verslag. (ser. 4), 23, 1449–1464Einstein-de Haas effect.[93] Co-authored with WJ de Haas.
    Schilpp 79; CP6, 181915Antwort auf eine Abhandlung M. von Laues: Ein Satz der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und seine Anwendung auf die Strahlungstheorie
    Response to a Paper by M. von Laue: A Theorem in Probability Calculus and Its Application to Radiation Theory
    Annalen der Physik (ser. 4), 47, 879–885, linkPhotons.[94]
    Schilpp 80; CP6, 231915Experimenteller Nachweis des Ampèreschen Molekularströme
    Experimental Proof of Ampère's Molecular Currents
    Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 17, 152–170, 203 (Berichtigung), 420Einstein-de Haas effect.[95] Co-authored with WJ de Haas.
    Schilpp 811915Experimenteller Nachweis des Ampèreschen Molekularströme
    Experimental Proof of Ampère's Molecular Currents
    Naturwissenschaften, 3, 237–238Einstein-de Haas effect.[96] Co-authored with WJ de Haas.
    Schilpp 821915Grundgedanken der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie und Anwendung dieser Theorie in der Astronomie
    Fundamental Ideas of the General Theory of Relativity and the Application of this Theory in Astronomy§
    Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, 1915 (part 1), 315General relativity. First of Einstein's four papers in November 1915.[97]
    Schilpp 83; CP6, 21 and 221915Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
    On the General Theory of Relativity
    Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, 1915 (part 2), 778–786, 799–801General relativity.[98] Second of Einstein's four papers in November 1915 that led to the final field equations for general relativity. The first paper had corrected a fundamental misconception and had allowed Einstein to finish; however, the second introduced a serious mistake.[99]
    Schilpp 84; CP6, 241915Erklärung der Perihelbewegung des Merkur aus der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
    Explanation of the Perihelion Motion of Mercury from the General Theory of Relativity
    Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, 1915 (part 2), 831–839General relativity.[100] Third of Einstein's four papers in November 1915. A pivotal paper in which Einstein shows that general relativity explains the anomalous precession of the planet Mercury, which had vexed astronomers since 1859. This paper also introduced the important calculational method, the post-Newtonian expansion. Einstein also calculated correctly (for the first time) the bending of light by gravity.
    Schilpp 85; CP6, 251915Feldgleichungen der Gravitation
    The Field Equations of Gravitation
    Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, 1915 (part 2), 844–847General relativity.[101] Fourth of Einstein's four papers in November 1915. This is the defining paper of general relativity. At long last, Einstein had found workable field equations, which served as the basis for subsequent derivations.
    Schilpp 88; CP6, 141916Experimental proof of the existence of Ampère's molecular currentsProceedings of the Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 18

    One thought on “Einstein Research Papers

    Leave a comment

    L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *